Form 424B7 Extra Space Storage Inc.

Prospectus [Rule 424(b)(7)]

Published: 2019-09-20 16:29:38
Submitted: 2019-09-20
exr2019prosuppopunits.htm 424B7




Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(7)
Registration No. 333-231506

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
 
Title of Securities Being
Registered(1)
 
Amount to be
Registered(1)
 
Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price Per
Unit(2)
 
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price(3)
 
Amount of
Registration Fee
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
138,456
 
$115.77
 
$16,029,051.12
 
$1,942.73
 
(1)
The amount being registered includes an estimate of the maximum number of shares that may be issued upon redemption of certain operating partnership units of Extra Space Storage LP (using the 52-week low trading price (as of August 30, 2019) of Extra Space Storage Inc.’s common stock on the New York Stock Exchange of $83.70 per share). The amount being registered includes an indeterminate number of shares which may be issued by Extra Space Storage Inc. with respect to such shares of common stock by way of a stock dividend, stock split or in connection with a stock combination, recapitalization, merger, consolidation or otherwise.
(2)
Based upon the average of the high and low prices of Extra Space Storage Inc.’s common stock reported on the New York Stock Exchange on September 16, 2019 pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(3)
Estimated solely for the purpose of determining the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
 


 






PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
(To Prospectus dated May 15, 2019)
138,456 Shares
Extra Space Storage Inc.
 
exrprosupp_image1a01.jpg
Common Stock
 

This prospectus supplement relates to the possible sale from time to time of up to 138,456 shares of our common stock issuable upon redemption of operating partnership units, or OP units, in Extra Space Storage LP, or our operating partnership, by the selling stockholders named in this prospectus supplement. We are registering the applicable shares of our common stock to provide the selling stockholders with freely tradable securities. The registration of the shares of our common stock covered by this prospectus supplement does not necessarily mean that any of the holders of OP units will redeem their OP units, that upon any such redemption we will elect, in our sole and absolute discretion, to exchange some or all of the OP units for shares of our common stock rather than cash, or that any shares of our common stock received in exchange for OP units will be sold by the selling stockholders.
We will receive no proceeds from any sale of the shares of our common stock covered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by the selling stockholders, but we have agreed to pay certain registration expenses relating to such shares of our common stock. See “Selling Stockholders” and “Plan of Distribution.” The selling stockholders, from time to time, may offer and sell any or all of the shares held by them directly or through agents or dealers on terms to be determined at the time of sale, as described in more detail in this prospectus supplement.
Our common stock currently trades on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “EXR.” On September 19, 2019, the last reported sales price of our common stock on the NYSE was $116.85 per share.
 

You should consider the risks that we have described in “
Risk Factors
” beginning on page S-2 before investing in our securities.
 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is September 20, 2019.
 






TABLE OF CONTENTS
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
 
 
Page
Extra Space Storage
S-1
Risk Factors
S-2
Where You Can Find More Information
S-5
Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference
S-5
Forward-Looking Statements
S-6
Use of Proceeds
S-7
Selling Stockholders
S-8
Plan of Distribution
S-10
Exchange of OP Units for Common Stock
S-11
Supplemental U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences
S-12
Legal Matters
S-13
Experts
S-13

PROSPECTUS
 
 
Page
Extra Space Storage
1
Risk Factors
2
About This Prospectus
2
Where You Can Find More Information
2
Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference
3
Forward-Looking Statements
4
Use of Proceeds
5
Description of Common Stock
6
Description of Preferred Stock
8
Description of Depositary Shares
10
Description of Warrants
13
Description of Rights
14
Description of Units
15
Global Securities
16
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
18
Description of the Partnership Agreement of Extra Space Storage LP
21
Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
25
U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences
30
Plan of Distribution
49
Legal Matters
50
Experts
50
References in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to “Extra Space Storage Inc.,” “Extra Space,” “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to Extra Space Storage Inc., a Maryland corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Extra Space Storage LP. Extra Space Storage LP is a Delaware limited partnership of which we are the indirect general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus as our operating partnership. References to “OP units” include common operating partnership units and preferred operating partnership units of Extra Space Storage LP.
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference herein. Neither we nor any of the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it.





This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, and this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction where, or to any person to whom, it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is correct on any date after their respective dates even though this prospectus supplement is delivered or shares are sold pursuant to this prospectus supplement at a later date. Since the date of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed.






ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering.
If the description of this offering varies between this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement.







EXTRA SPACE STORAGE
We are a fully integrated, self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT, formed as a Maryland corporation on April 30, 2004, to own, operate, manage, acquire, develop and redevelop professionally managed self-storage properties, or stores, located throughout the United States. We were formed to continue the business of Extra Space Storage LLC and its subsidiaries, which had engaged in the self-storage business since 1977.
As of June 30, 2019, we had direct and indirect equity interests in 1,157 stores. In addition, we managed 595 stores for third parties, bringing the total number of stores which we own and/or manage to 1,752. These stores are located in 40 states, Washington, D.C. and Puerto Rico. We also offer tenant reinsurance at our owned and managed stores that insures the value of goods in the storage units.
We operate in two distinct segments: (1) self-storage operations; and (2) tenant reinsurance. Our self-storage operations activities include rental operations of wholly-owned stores. Tenant reinsurance activities include the reinsurance of risks relating to the loss of goods stored by tenants in our stores.
Substantially all of our business is conducted through Extra Space Storage LP, or our operating partnership. Our primary assets are general partner and limited partner interests in our operating partnership. This structure is commonly referred to as an umbrella partnership REIT, or UPREIT. We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Internal Revenue Code. To the extent we continue to qualify as a REIT we will not be subject to U.S. federal tax, with certain exceptions, on our net taxable income that is distributed to our stockholders.
Our primary business objectives are to maximize cash flow available for distribution to our stockholders and to achieve sustainable long-term growth in cash flow per share in order to maximize long-term stockholder value both at acceptable levels of risk. We continue to evaluate a range of growth initiatives and opportunities.
Our principal corporate offices are located at 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, and our telephone number is (801) 365-4600. We maintain a website that contains information about us at
www.extraspace.com
. The information included on our website is not, and should not be considered, a part of this prospectus supplement.
 

S-1





RISK FACTORS
Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, the risks discussed below and the other information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, before exchanging OP units for shares of our common stock or purchasing shares of our common stock from the selling stockholders. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities. Please also refer to the section below entitled “Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to Exchange of OP Units for Common Stock
The exchange of OP units for our common stock is a taxable transaction.
The exchange of OP units for shares of our common stock will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a taxable transaction. A limited partner making the exchange generally will recognize gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the value of our common stock received in the exchange, plus the amount of liabilities of the operating partnership allocable to the limited partner’s OP units being exchanged, less the limited partner’s tax basis in those OP units. The recognition of any loss resulting from an exchange of OP units for shares of our common stock is subject to a number of limitations set forth in the Internal Revenue Code. The character of any gain or loss as capital or ordinary, or any gain as recapture gain under Section 1250 of the Internal Revenue Code, will depend on the nature of the assets of the operating partnership at the time of the exchange. It is possible that the amount of gain recognized or even the tax liability resulting from the gain could exceed the value of the shares of our common stock received upon the exchange. In addition, the ability of a limited partner to sell a substantial number of shares of our common stock in order to raise cash to pay tax liabilities associated with the exchange of our OP units may be restricted and, as a result of stock price fluctuations, the price the holder receives for the shares of our common stock may not equal the value of the OP units at the time of the exchange.
An investment in our common stock is different from an investment in OP units.
If a limited partner exchanges his or her OP units for shares of our common stock, he or she will become one of our stockholders rather than a limited partner in our operating partnership. Although the nature of an investment in our common stock is similar to an investment in OP units, there are also differences between ownership of OP units and ownership of our common stock. These differences include:
 
form of organization;
management control;
voting and consent rights;
liquidity; and
U.S. federal income tax considerations.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Market interest rates may have an adverse effect on the market price of our securities.
One of the factors that will influence the price of our common stock will be the dividend yield on our common stock (as a percentage of the price of our common stock) relative to market interest rates. An increase in market interest rates may lead prospective purchasers of our common stock to expect a higher dividend yield and higher interest rates would likely increase our borrowing costs and potentially decrease funds available for distribution. Thus, higher market interest rates could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
 
Future sales of shares of our common stock may depress the price of our shares.
We cannot predict whether future issuances of shares of our common stock or the availability of shares of our common stock for resale in the open market will decrease the market price of our common stock. Any sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, including upon the exchange of our exchangeable senior notes or the redemption of OP units under this prospectus supplement, or the perception that such sales might occur, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. Any shares of our common stock exchanged for OP units or sold pursuant to this prospectus supplement will be freely tradable without restriction (other than any restrictions set forth in our charter relating to our qualification as a REIT).
The issuance of our common stock upon exchange of our exchangeable senior notes, the redemption of OP units in exchange for common stock, the exercise of any options or the vesting of any restricted stock granted to directors, officers and other employees

S-2





under our stock incentive plans, the issuance of our common stock or OP units in connection with property, portfolio or business acquisitions and other issuances of our common stock could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock. Furthermore, the existence of OP units, options and shares of our common stock reserved for issuance as restricted stock or upon redemption of OP units or exercise of options may adversely affect the terms upon which we may be able to obtain additional capital through the sale of equity securities. In addition, future sales of shares of our common stock may be dilutive to our existing stockholders.
Our share price could be volatile and could decline, resulting in a substantial or complete loss on our stockholders’ investment.
The stock markets (including the NYSE, on which we list our common stock) have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. As a result, the market price of our common stock could be similarly volatile, and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their shares, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. The price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a number of factors, including:
 
our operating performance and the performance of similar companies;
actual or anticipated differences in our operating results;
failure to close one or more of our pending acquisitions;
changes in our revenue or earnings estimates or recommendations by securities analysts;
publication of research reports about us or our industry by securities analysts;
changes in market valuations of similar companies;
adverse market reaction to any debt or equity securities we may issue, or additional debt we may incur in the future;
additions and departures of key personnel;
strategic decisions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions, divestments, spin-offs, joint ventures, strategic investments or changes in business strategy;
the passage of legislation or other regulatory developments that adversely affect us or our industry;
speculation in the press or investment community;
the realization of any of the other risk factors presented or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement;
actions by institutional stockholders;
changes in accounting principles;
terrorist acts; and
general market conditions, including factors unrelated to our performance.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources.
Future offerings of debt, which would be senior to our common stock upon liquidation, and/or preferred equity securities which may be senior to our common stock for purposes of dividend distributions or upon liquidation, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
In the future, we may increase our capital resources by making additional offerings of debt or preferred equity securities, including trust preferred securities, senior or subordinated notes and preferred stock. Upon liquidation, holders of our debt securities and shares of preferred stock and lenders with respect to other borrowings will receive distributions of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Additional equity offerings may dilute the holdings of our existing stockholders or reduce the market price of our common stock, or both. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting their stock holdings in us.
Our business operations may not generate the cash needed to make distributions on our capital stock or to service our indebtedness, and we may adjust our common stock dividend policy.
Our ability to make distributions on our common stock and payments on our indebtedness and to fund planned capital expenditures will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to make distributions on our common stock, to pay our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs.
The decision to declare and pay dividends on shares of our common stock in the future, as well as the timing, amount and composition of any such future dividends, will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors in light of conditions then

S-3





existing, including our earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, debt maturities, the availability of debt and equity capital, applicable REIT and legal restrictions, general overall economic conditions and other factors. Any change in our dividend policy could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
 


S-4





WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Securities and Exchange Commission maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The address of the Securities and Exchange Commission’s website is
http://sec.report
. You can also inspect reports and other information we file at the offices of the NYSE, 20 Broad Street, New York, New York 10005. In addition, we maintain a website that contains information about us at
www.extraspace.com
. The information included on our website is not, and should not be considered, a part of this prospectus supplement.
We have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, of which this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus are a part, including exhibits, schedules and amendments filed with, or incorporated by reference in, this registration statement, under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, with respect to the securities registered hereby. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. For further information with respect to our company and the securities registered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, including the exhibits to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus are not necessarily complete and, where that contract is an exhibit to the registration statement, each statement is qualified in all respects by the exhibit to which the reference relates.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The Securities and Exchange Commission allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents. The information incorporated by reference herein is an important part of this prospectus supplement. The incorporated documents contain significant information about us, our business and our finances. Any information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus will be deemed to have been modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any other document we subsequently file with the Securities and Exchange Commission that also is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus modifies or supersedes the original statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to be a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (excluding any portions of such documents that are deemed “furnished” to the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to applicable rules and regulations):

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018;
our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on February 27, 2019, May 16, 2019, May 23, 2019 and July 8, 2019; and
the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed on August 4, 2004 (File No. 001-32269), including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating this description.

All documents that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of the offering of any securities made under this prospectus supplement (excluding any portions of such documents that are deemed “furnished” to the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to applicable rules and regulations) will also be considered to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus supplement and any previously filed documents.
If you request, either orally or in writing, we will provide you with a copy of any or all documents that are incorporated by reference. Such documents will be provided to you free of charge, but will not contain any exhibits, unless those exhibits are incorporated by reference into the document. Requests should be addressed to Extra Space Storage Inc., 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, Attn: Investor Relations, telephone: (801) 365-4600.
 

S-5





FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement and the documents that we incorporate herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act). Also, documents we subsequently file with the Securities and Exchange Commission and incorporate by reference will contain forward-looking statements. In particular, statements pertaining to our capital resources, portfolio performance and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Likewise, our pro forma financial statements and other pro forma information and our statements regarding anticipated growth in our funds from operations and anticipated market conditions, demographics and results of operations are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties and you should not rely on them as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods that may be incorrect or imprecise, and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “intends,” “plans,” “pro forma,” “estimates” or “anticipates” or the negative of these words and phrases or similar words or phrases. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:

adverse changes in general economic conditions, the real estate industry and the markets in which we operate;
failure to close pending acquisitions on expected terms, or at all;
the effect of competition from new and existing stores or other storage alternatives, which could cause rents and occupancy rates to decline;
potential liability for uninsured losses and environmental contamination;
the impact of the regulatory environment as well as national, state, and local laws and regulations including, without limitation, those governing REITs, tenant reinsurance and other aspects of our business, which could adversely affect our results;
disruptions in credit and financial markets and resulting difficulties in raising capital or obtaining credit at reasonable rates or at all, which could impede our ability to grow;
increased interest rates;
reductions in asset valuations and related impairment charges;
our lack of sole decision-making authority with respect to our joint venture investments;
the effect of recent or future changes to U.S. tax laws;
the failure to maintain our REIT status for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
economic uncertainty due to the impact of natural disasters, war or terrorism, which could adversely affect our business plan.
While forward-looking statements reflect our good-faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. We disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could impact our future results, performance or transactions, see the section above entitled “Risk Factors,” including the risks incorporated therein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act.


S-6





USE OF PROCEEDS
We are filing this prospectus supplement pursuant to our contractual obligations to the holders of our OP units named in the section entitled “Selling Stockholders.” We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock from time to time by such holders.
 


S-7





SELLING STOCKHOLDERS
The “selling stockholders” are the people or entities who may receive shares of our common stock registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part upon exchange of OP units. The following table provides the names of the selling stockholders, the maximum number of shares of our common stock issuable to such selling stockholders in the exchange and the aggregate number of shares of our common stock that will be owned by such selling stockholders after the exchange, in each case as of August 30, 2019. Since the selling stockholders may sell all, some or none of their shares, we cannot estimate the aggregate number of shares that the selling stockholders will offer pursuant to this prospectus supplement or that the selling stockholders will own upon completion of the offering to which this prospectus supplement relates. Except as otherwise indicated, and subject to applicable community property laws, to our knowledge, each selling stockholder named in the table has sole voting and investment power with respect to all of the OP units held by such selling stockholder.
The selling stockholders named below and their respective pledgees, donees and other successors in interest may from time to time offer the shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement:
 
 
Shares of
Common
Stock
Owned
Prior to the Exchange
 
Maximum
Number of
Shares of
Common Stock
Issuable in the
Exchange and
Available for Resale
 
Shares of
Common
Stock Owned
Following the
Exchange(1)(2)
 
Maximum
Number of
Shares of
Common
Stock to be Resold
 
Shares of
Common Stock
Owned After
Resale(2)(3)
Name
 
 
Shares
Percent
 
 
Shares
Percent
NBM Revocable Trust dated February 14, 2017 (4)(5)

 
21,768
 
21,768
 
*
 
21,768
 

 
*
Jean L. Jodoin 2012 Family Trust (6)(7)

 
12,995
 
12,995
 
*
 
12,995
 

 
*
Christine M. Jodoin 2012 Family Trust (6)(8)

 
12,995
 
12,995
 
*
 
12,995
 

 
*
Dacien D. Barry 2012 Family Trust (6)(9)

 
12,995
 
12,995
 
*
 
12,995
 

 
*
Christopher S. Barry 2012 Family Trust (6)(10)

 
12,995
 
12,995
 
*
 
12,995
 

 
*
J.B. Baldwin Family Trust U/A/D March 4, 1986 (4)(11)(12)

 
22,648
 
22,648
 
*
 
22,648
 

 
*
Brian Baldwin (4)(11)(13)

 
3,235
 
3,235
 
*
 
3,235
 

 
*
J.B. Baldwin, Jr. (4)(11)(14)

 
6,471
 
6,471
 
*
 
6,471
 

 
*
Eric D. Howell (4)(11)(15)

 
32,354
 
32,354
 
*
 
32,354
 

 
*
Total
 
 
138,456
 
 
 
 
 
138,456
 
 
 
 

*
Less than 1%.
 
(1
)
Amounts assume that all OP units are exchanged for shares of our common stock. The percentage ownership is determined for each selling stockholder by taking into account the issuance and sale of shares of our common stock issued in exchange for OP units of only such selling stockholder. Also assumes that no transactions with respect to our common stock or OP units occur other than the exchange.
(2
)
Based on a total of 129,377,956 shares of our common stock outstanding as of August 30, 2019.
(3
)
Assumes the selling stockholders sell all of their shares of our common stock offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement. The percentage ownership is determined for each selling stockholder by taking into account the issuance and sale of shares of our common stock issuable in exchange for OP units of only such selling stockholder.


S-8





(4
)
Each holder of common OP units has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of the common OP units in exchange for a cash redemption amount equal to the value of the common OP units. We may, in our sole and absolute discretion, but subject to the restrictions on the ownership of our common stock imposed under our charter and the transfer restrictions and limitations thereof, elect to acquire some or all of the tendered common OP units in exchange for shares of our common stock, based on an exchange ratio of one share of our common stock for each common OP unit.
(5
)
An aggregate of 21,798 common OP units were issued to the NPM Revocable Trust dated February 14, 2017 as part of the total consideration for the purchase of a store in Virginia in April 2018. Noah Mehrkam is the trustee of the NPM Revocable Trust dated February 14, 2017 and has sole voting and investment power over its 21,798 common OP units.
(6
)
An aggregate of 174,020 Series D-2 Redeemable Preferred Units, or Series D-2 units, were issued to these selling stockholders, in equal proportions of 87,010 Series D-2 units each, as part of the total consideration for the purchase of a store located in New York in December 2017. Each holder of Series D-2 units has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement or in any separate agreement that provides otherwise, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of such units in exchange for a cash redemption amount equal to, per Series D-2 unit, the sum of (a) $25.00 and (b) any accrued and unpaid distributions with respect to such Series D-2 unit up to, but not including, the redemption date. We may, in our sole and absolute discretion, but subject to the restrictions on the ownership of our common stock imposed under our charter and the transfer restrictions and other limitations thereof, elect to acquire some or all of the tendered Series D-2 units from the holder in exchange for a number of shares of our common stock equal to the redemption amount divided by the average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days prior to the date of determination. In addition, each holder of Series D-2 units has the right until the tenth anniversary of the date of issuance, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement or any separate agreement that provides otherwise, to exchange all or a portion of such units for a number of common OP units equal to the redemption amount divided by the average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days prior to the date of determination. Each holder of common OP units has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of the common OP units in exchange for a cash redemption amount equal to the value of the common OP units. We may, in our sole and absolute discretion, but subject to the restrictions on the ownership of our common stock imposed under our charter and the transfer restrictions and limitations thereof, elect to acquire some or all of the tendered common OP units in exchange for shares of our common stock, based on an exchange ratio of one share of our common stock for each common OP unit. The calculation of the number of shares of our common stock set forth in the table with respect to such Series D-2 units assumes the exchange of such Series D-2 units for common OP units and the redemption of the common OP units for shares of our common stock. The calculation of the number of shares of our common stock further assumes that the ten-day average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE is equal to the 52-week low trading price (as of August 30, 2019) of our common stock of $83.70. The average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days prior to the date of this prospectus supplement was $117.20.
(7
)
Christine M. Jodoin is the trustee of the Jean L. Jodoin 2012 Family Trust and has sole voting and investment power over its 43,505 Series D-2 units.
(8
)
Jean L. Jodoin is the trustee of the Christine M. Jodoin 2012 Family Trust and has sole voting and investment power over its 43,505 Series D-2 units.
(9
)
Christopher S. Barry is the trustee of the Dacien D. Barry 2012 Family Trust and has sole voting and investment power over its 43,505 Series D-2 units. The 43,505 Series D-2 units have been pledged by the Dacien D. Barry 2012 Family Trust to
Northern Trust Bank, N.A. as security for a loan or other extension of credit to the Dacien D. Barry 2012 Family Trust.
(10
)
Dacien D. Barry is the trustee of the Christopher S. Barry 2012 Family Trust and has sole voting and investment power over its 43,505 Series D-2 units. The 43,505 Series D-2 units have been pledged by the Christopher S. Barry 2012
Family Trust to Northern Trust Bank, N.A. as security for a loan or other extension of credit to the Christopher S. Barry
2012 Family Trust.
(11
)
An aggregate of 64,907 common OP units were issued to these selling stockholders as part of the total consideration for the purchase of a store located in Florida in December 2017.
(12
)
J.B. Baldwin is the trustee of the J.B. Baldwin Family Trust U/A/D March 4, 1986 and has sole voting and investment power over its 22,648 common OP units.
(13
)
Brian Baldwin owns 3,235 common OP units.
(14
)
J.B. Baldwin, Jr. owns 6,471 common OP units.
(15
)
Eric Howell owns 32,354 common OP units.
 


S-9





PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
This prospectus supplements relates to the offer and sale from time to time of some or all of the 138,456 shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders or their donees, pledgees, transferees and other successors in interest if, and to the extent that, the selling stockholders tender their OP units for redemption and we elect, in our sole and absolute discretion, to exchange such OP units for common stock in lieu of a cash redemption.
We are registering the shares of our common stock to provide the holders with freely tradable securities, but the registration of these shares does not necessarily mean that any of these shares will be offered or sold by the holders.
We will not receive any proceeds from the issuance of the shares of our common stock to the selling stockholders or from the sale of such shares by the selling stockholders, but we have agreed to pay the following expenses of the registration of such shares:
 
fees and disbursements of counsel and independent public accountants;
premiums and other costs of policies of insurance against liabilities arising out of the sale of any securities;
all registration, filing and stock exchange fees;
fees and expenses for complying with securities or blue sky laws;
fees and expenses of custodians, transfer agent and registrar; and
printing expenses, messenger and delivery expenses.

We have no obligation to pay any out-of-pocket expenses of the selling stockholders, transfer taxes, underwriting or brokerage commissions or discounts associated with the exchange of OP units for our common stock or the resale of our common stock contemplated hereby.
The selling stockholders may, from time to time, sell any or all of the shares of our common stock covered by this prospectus supplement directly to purchasers. The common stock may be sold in one or more transactions at fixed prices, at prevailing market prices at the time of sale, at varying prices determined at the time of sale, or at negotiated prices. Alternatively, the selling stockholders may, from time to time, offer such shares through dealers or agents, who may receive compensation in the form of commissions from the selling stockholders and from the purchasers of such shares for whom they may act as agent. The selling stockholders and any dealers or agents that participate in the distribution of such shares may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act and any profit on the sale of our common stock by them and any commissions received by any of these dealers or agents might be deemed to be underwriting commissions under the Securities Act.
In connection with distribution of the shares of our common stock covered by this prospectus supplement:
 
the selling stockholders may enter into hedging transactions with broker-dealers;
the broker-dealers may engage in short sales of our common stock in the course of hedging the positions they assume with the selling stockholders;
the selling stockholders may sell our common stock short and deliver our common stock to close out these short positions;
the selling stockholders may enter into option or other transactions with broker-dealers that involve the delivery of our common stock to the broker-dealers, who may then resell or otherwise transfer our common stock; and
the selling stockholders may loan or pledge our common stock to a broker-dealer and the broker-dealer may sell our common stock so loaned or upon a default may sell or otherwise transfer the pledged stock.
Persons participating in the distribution of the shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement may engage in transactions that stabilize the price of our common stock. The selling stockholders will be subject to the Exchange Act, including Regulation M, which may limit the timing of purchases and sales of common stock by the selling stockholders and their affiliates.
 


S-10





EXCHANGE OF OP UNITS FOR COMMON STOCK
Terms of the Exchange
The holders of OP units of our operating partnership who hold units that may be redeemed for shares of our common stock issued under this prospectus supplement are referred to as the “selling stockholders.” The selling stockholders hold an aggregate of 174,020 Series D-2 units and 86,776 common OP units. The selling stockholders may require our operating partnership to redeem their OP units for cash by delivering to us, as general partner of our operating partnership, a notice of redemption. Upon receipt of the notice of redemption, we may, in our sole and absolute discretion, subject to the limitations on ownership and transfer of our common stock set forth in our charter, elect to exchange some or all of those OP units for shares of our common stock as described in the section entitled “Description of the Partnership Agreement of Extra Space Storage LP—Redemption Rights” in the accompanying prospectus.
Once we receive a notice of redemption from a limited partner, we will determine whether to redeem the tendering partner’s OP units for cash or exchange some or all of the tendering partner’s OP units for shares of our common stock. We will promptly notify the tendering partner if we decide to exchange the tendering partner’s OP units for shares of our common stock. Any shares of our common stock that we issue will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable shares, free of any pledge, lien, encumbrance or restriction other than those provided in:

our charter;
our bylaws;
the Securities Act;
relevant state securities or blue sky laws;
any applicable registration rights agreement with respect to the shares entered into by the tendering partner; and
applicable rules of the NYSE.
Each tendering partner will continue to own all OP units subject to any redemption or exchange, and be treated as a limited partner with respect to the OP units for all purposes, until the limited partner transfers the OP units to us, is paid for them or receives shares of our common stock in exchange for them. Until that time, the limited partner will have no rights as one of our stockholders with respect to the shares issued under this prospectus supplement.
Conditions to the Exchange
We may elect to issue shares of our common stock in exchange for OP units to a tendering partner if each of the following conditions is satisfied or waived:
 
the exchange would not cause the tendering partner or any other person to violate the ownership limits set forth in our charter or any other provision of our charter;
the exchange is for at least 1,000 OP units, or, if less than 1,000 OP units, all of the OP units held by the tendering partner;
the redemption is not effected during the period after the record date that we established for a distribution from our operating partnership to its partners and before the record date that we established for a distribution to our common stockholders; and
the consummation of any redemption or exchange will be subject to the expiration or termination of any applicable waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended.
 

S-11





SUPPLEMENTAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES
The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to the exchange of your OP units for our common stock. This summary supplements, and should be read in connection with, the summary under the heading “U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences” in the accompanying prospectus. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Extra Space Storage Inc., and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:
 
the Internal Revenue Code;
current, temporary and proposed Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Internal Revenue Code;
the legislative history of the Internal Revenue Code;
administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS; and
court decisions;

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus supplement. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. Future legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may adversely affect the tax considerations contained in this discussion. Any such change could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested and do not intend to request a ruling from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus supplement are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any federal tax other than the income tax, associated with the exchange of your OP units for common stock.
You are urged to consult your tax advisors regarding the tax consequences to you of:
 
the exchange of your OP units for our common stock, including the federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences; and
potential changes in applicable tax laws.
Tax Consequences of the Exercise of Exchange Rights
If you exercise your right to require the operating partnership to acquire all or part of your OP units, and we elect to acquire some or all of your OP units in exchange for our common stock, the exchange will be a taxable transaction. You generally will recognize gain in an amount equal to the value of our common stock that you receive, plus the amount of liabilities of the operating partnership allocable to your OP units being exchanged, less your tax basis in those OP units. The recognition of any loss is subject to a number of limitations set forth in the Internal Revenue Code. The character of any gain or loss as capital or ordinary, or any gain as recapture gain under Section 1250 of the Internal Revenue Code, will depend on the nature of the assets of the operating partnership at the time of the exchange. The tax treatment of any acquisition of your OP units by the operating partnership in exchange for cash may be similar, depending on your circumstances.


S-12





LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, San Diego, California. Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, has issued an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law.


EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Extra Space Storage Inc. appearing in Extra Space Storage Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2018 (including the schedule appearing therein), and the effectiveness of Extra Space Storage Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and schedule and Extra Space Storage Inc. management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.





S-13







PROSPECTUS
Extra Space Storage Inc.
 
exrprosupp_image1a01.jpg
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Rights
Units


We may offer and sell the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.
Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering, and may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve the status of Extra Space Storage Inc. as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The applicable prospectus supplement may also contain information, where applicable, about certain U.S. federal income tax consequences relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the securities covered by such prospectus supplement. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.
We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. In addition, the selling security holders may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time, together or separately. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names, and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About This Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.
Investing in our securities involves risks. See the “
Risk Factors
” on page 2 of this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement concerning factors you should consider before investing in our securities.
Our common stock currently trades on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “EXR.” On May 14, 2019, the last reported sales price of our common stock on the NYSE was $106.63 per share.



i



Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.


The date of this prospectus is May 15, 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
Page
Extra Space Storage
1
Risk Factors
2
About This Prospectus
2
Where You Can Find More Information
2
Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference
3
Forward-Looking Statements
4
Use of Proceeds
5
Description of Common Stock
6
Description of Preferred Stock
8
Description of Depositary Shares
10
Description of Warrants
13
Description of Rights
14
Description of Units
15
Global Securities
16
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
18
Description of the Partnership Agreement of Extra Space Storage LP
21
Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
25
U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences
30
Plan of Distribution
49
Legal Matters
50
Experts
50
References in this prospectus to “Extra Space Storage Inc.,” “Extra Space,” “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to Extra Space Storage Inc., a Maryland corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Extra Space Storage LP. Extra Space Storage LP is a Delaware limited partnership of which we are the indirect general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus as our operating partnership. References to “OP units” include common operating partnership units and preferred operating partnership units of Extra Space Storage LP.
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, in an accompanying prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference herein or therein. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information or make any representation that is different. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, and this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction where, or to any person to whom, it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is correct on any date after the respective dates of the prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements, as applicable, even though this prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements are delivered or shares are sold pursuant to the prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements at a later date. Since the respective dates of the prospectus contained in this registration statement and any accompanying prospectus supplement, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed. We may only use this prospectus to sell the securities if it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

i



EXTRA SPACE STORAGE
We are a fully integrated, self-administered and self-managed REIT formed as a Maryland corporation on April 30, 2004, to own, operate, manage, acquire, develop and redevelop self-storage properties, or stores. We closed our initial public offering on August 17, 2004.
We were formed to continue the business of Extra Space Storage LLC and its subsidiaries, which had engaged in the self-storage business since 1977. As of March 31, 2019, we owned and/or operated 1,696 stores in 40 states, Washington, D.C. and Puerto Rico, comprising approximately 130.0 million square feet of net rentable space in approximately 1.2 million units.
We operate in two distinct segments: (1) self-storage operations; and (2) tenant reinsurance. Our self-storage operations activities include rental operations of wholly-owned stores. Tenant reinsurance activities include the reinsurance of risks relating to the loss of goods stored by tenants in our stores.
Substantially all of our business is conducted through our operating partnership. Our primary assets are general partner and limited partner interests in our operating partnership. This structure is commonly referred to as an umbrella partnership REIT, or UPREIT. Between our general partner and limited partner interests, we held a 90.5% ownership interest in our operating partnership as of March 31, 2019. We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. To the extent we continue to qualify as a REIT we will not be subject to U.S. federal tax, with certain exceptions, on our net taxable income that is distributed to our stockholders.
Our primary business objectives are to maximize cash flow available for distribution to our stockholders and to achieve sustainable long-term growth in cash flow per share in order to maximize long-term stockholder value both at acceptable levels of risk. We continue to evaluate a range of growth initiatives and opportunities.
Our principal corporate offices are located at 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, and our telephone number is (801) 365-4600. We maintain a website that contains information about us at
www.extraspace.com
. The information included on our website is not, and should not be considered, a part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
 

1



RISK FACTORS
Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities. Please also refer to the section below entitled “Forward-Looking Statements.”
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants, rights and units in one or more offerings from time to time. In addition, selling security holders to be named in a prospectus supplement may sell certain of our securities from time to time. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or any selling security holder may offer. Each time we or any selling security holder sells securities, we or the selling security holder will provide a prospectus supplement containing specific information about the terms of the applicable offering. Such prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should rely on the prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement together with additional information described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” before you decide whether to invest in our securities.
We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. In addition, the selling security holders may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time, together or separately. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names, and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” for more information on this topic. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Securities and Exchange Commission maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The address of the Securities and Exchange Commission’s website is
http://sec.report
. You can also inspect reports and other information we file at the offices of the NYSE, 20 Broad Street, New York, New York 10005. In addition, we maintain a website that contains information about us at
www.extraspace.com
. The information included on our website is not, and should not be considered, a part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
We have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, of which this prospectus is a part, including exhibits, schedules and amendments filed with, or incorporated by reference in, this registration statement, under the Securities Act with respect to the securities registered hereby. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. For further information with respect to our company and the securities registered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, including the exhibits to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to in, or incorporated by reference in, this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement are not necessarily complete and, where that contract is an exhibit to the registration statement, each statement is qualified in all respects by the exhibit to which the reference relates.
 

2



INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The Securities and Exchange Commission allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents. The information incorporated by reference herein is an important part of this prospectus. The incorporated documents contain significant information about us, our business and our finances. Any information contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed to have been modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, in any other document we subsequently file with the Securities and Exchange Commission that also is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes the original statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to be a part of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (excluding any portions of such documents that are deemed “furnished” to the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to applicable rules and regulations):
our Annual Report on
Form  10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2018;
our Quarterly Report on
Form 10-Q
for the quarter ended March 31, 2019;
the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our
Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A
, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April  9, 2019;
our Current Report on
Form 8-K
filed on February 27, 2019; and
the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on
Form  8-A
filed on August 4, 2004 (File No. 001-32269), including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating this description.
All documents that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act on or after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of any securities made under this prospectus (excluding any portions of such documents that are deemed “furnished” to the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to applicable rules and regulations) will also be considered to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus and any previously filed documents.
If you request, either orally or in writing, we will provide you with a copy of any or all documents that are incorporated by reference. Such documents will be provided to you free of charge, but will not contain any exhibits, unless those exhibits are incorporated by reference into the document. Requests should be addressed to Extra Space Storage Inc., 2795 East Cottonwood Parkway, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, Attn: Investor Relations, telephone: (801) 365-4600.
 

3



FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents that we incorporate herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act). Also, documents we subsequently file with the Securities and Exchange Commission and incorporate by reference will contain forward-looking statements. In particular, statements pertaining to our capital resources, portfolio performance and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Likewise, our pro forma financial statements and other pro forma information and our statements regarding anticipated growth in our funds from operations and anticipated market conditions, demographics and results of operations are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties and you should not rely on them as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods that may be incorrect or imprecise, and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “intends,” “plans,” “pro forma,” “estimates” or “anticipates” or the negative of these words and phrases or similar words or phrases. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:
adverse changes in general economic conditions, the real estate industry and the markets in which we operate;
failure to close pending acquisitions and developments on expected terms, or at all;
the effect of competition from new and existing stores or other storage alternatives, which could cause rents and occupancy rates to decline;
potential liability for uninsured losses and environmental contamination;
the impact of the regulatory environment as well as national, state, and local laws and regulations including, without limitation, those governing REITs, tenant reinsurance and other aspects of our business, which could adversely affect our results;
disruptions in credit and financial markets and resulting difficulties in raising capital or obtaining credit at reasonable rates or at all, which could impede our ability to grow;
increased interest rates;
reductions in asset valuations and related impairment charges;
our lack of sole decision-making authority with respect to our joint venture investments;
the effect of recent or future changes to current U.S. tax laws;
the failure to maintain our REIT status for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
economic uncertainty due to the impact of natural disasters, war or terrorism, which could adversely affect our business plan.
While forward-looking statements reflect our good-faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. We disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could impact our future results, performance or transactions, see the section above entitled “Risk Factors,” including the risks incorporated therein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act.
 

4



USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to contribute the net proceeds from any sale of the securities pursuant to this prospectus to our operating partnership in exchange for operating partnership units, which we refer to as OP units. Our operating partnership intends to subsequently use the net proceeds received from us to potentially acquire or develop additional properties and for general corporate purposes, which may include the repayment of existing indebtedness and improvements to the stores in our portfolio. Pending application of cash proceeds, we will invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts and short-term, interest-bearing securities which are consistent with our intention to continue to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Further details regarding the use of the net proceeds from the sale of a specific series or class of the securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If a prospectus supplement includes an offering by selling security holders, we will not receive any proceeds from such sales.
 

5



DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
General
This prospectus describes the general terms of our common stock. The following description is not complete and may not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, and our charter and bylaws, as amended and supplemented from time to time. This description is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our charter and bylaws and the MGCL. Copies of our existing charter and bylaws are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and are incorporated herein by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”
When we offer to sell shares of a particular class or series of stock, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 500,000,000 shares of our common stock, par value $0.01 per share. Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of our board of directors and without stockholder approval, to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of stock of any class or series. As of March 31, 2019, 127,392,050 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding.
All shares of our common stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights of any other class or series of stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends on such stock if, as and when authorized by our board of directors out of assets legally available therefor and declared by us and to share ratably in the assets of our company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment of or adequate provision for all known debts and liabilities of our company.
Provisions of Our Charter
Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of stock, and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of our common stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of such shares will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our board of directors, which means that the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock can elect all of the directors then standing for election and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors.
Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, redemption or appraisal rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any of our securities. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of stock, shares of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.
Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, sell all or substantially all of its assets, convert into another entity, engage in a statutory share exchange or engage in similar transactions outside the ordinary course of business unless declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by its stockholders by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Except for certain charter amendments, our charter provides that any such action shall be effective if approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, our operating assets may be held by our subsidiaries and these subsidiaries may be able to transfer all of their assets without any vote of our stockholders.
 
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of stock, and to establish the number of shares in each class or series, and to set the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each such class or series.

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Power to Increase Authorized Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Our Common Stock
We believe that the power of our board of directors to (1) amend our charter to increase the number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of stock of any class or series, (2) cause us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our common stock and (3) classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless stockholder consent is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our stockholders or otherwise be in their best interests.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
To assist us in complying with certain U.S. federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, we have adopted certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
General
This prospectus describes the general terms of our preferred stock. The following description is not complete and may not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our preferred stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the MGCL and our charter, including the applicable articles supplementary, and bylaws, as amended and supplemented from time to time. Copies of our existing charter and bylaws are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and are incorporated herein by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”
When we offer to sell a particular class or series of stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. Our charter authorizes our board of directors to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of stock of any class or series without stockholder approval. As of March 31, 2019, no shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding.
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of stock of any class or series. Prior to issuance of shares of each class or series, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, including without limitation, restrictions on transferability, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each such class or series. The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power, dividend rights and other rights of holders of our common stock. Our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions which could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our stock or otherwise be in their best interests. Management believes that the availability of preferred stock provides the company with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise.
The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series, including a prospectus supplement providing that preferred stock may be issuable upon the exercise of warrants we issue. The preferences and other terms of the preferred stock of each class or series will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to such class or series. The description of preferred stock set forth below and the description of the terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to our charter, including the articles supplementary relating to that class or series, our bylaws and the MGCL.
A prospectus supplement, relating to each class or series of preferred stock that we may offer or sell, will specify the terms of the preferred stock as follows:
the designation and stated value of the preferred stock;
the number of shares of the preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the preferred stock;
the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to the preferred stock;
 
whether the dividends on the preferred stock are cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on the preferred stock will accumulate;
the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;
the provision for redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock;
any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;
preemptive rights, if any;

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the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred stock will be converted into our common stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof);
a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the preferred stock (to the extent not otherwise covered in this prospectus);
any limitations on actual and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a REIT;
the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company;
any limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;
voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock; and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the preferred stock.
 
Rank
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, rank: (1) senior to all classes or series of our common stock, and to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking junior to the preferred stock; (2) on parity with any class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking on parity with the preferred stock; and (3) junior to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking senior to the preferred stock.
Redemption Rights
If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in the prospectus supplement.
Conversion Rights
The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any shares of any class or series of preferred stock are convertible into shares of our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include the number of shares of our common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of such class or series of preferred stock or us, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of such class or series of preferred stock.
Power to Increase Authorized Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Our Preferred Stock
Our board of directors has the power, without stockholder approval, to amend our charter from time to time to increase the number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of stock of any class or series, to cause us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our preferred stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock. The additional classes or series will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless stockholder consent is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our stockholders or otherwise be in their best interests.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
To assist us in complying with certain U.S. federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, we have adopted certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our common stock. We expect to adopt similar restrictions with respect to any class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus under the articles supplementary for each such class or series. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any additional ownership limitation relating to such class or series. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES
We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares rather than full shares of preferred stock. Each depositary share will represent ownership of and entitlement to all rights and preferences of a fraction of a share of preferred stock of a specified series (including dividend, voting, redemption and liquidation rights). The applicable fraction will be specified in a prospectus supplement. The shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares will be deposited with a depositary named in the applicable prospectus supplement, under a deposit agreement, among us, the depositary and the holders of the certificates evidencing depositary shares, or depositary receipts. Depositary receipts will be delivered to those persons purchasing depositary shares in the offering. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.
The summary of the terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, the provisions of the deposit agreement, our charter and the form of articles supplementary that are, or will be, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission for the applicable class or series of preferred stock.
Dividends
The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of the series of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary receipts in proportion to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, which will be the same date as the record date fixed by us for the applicable series of preferred stock. The depositary, however, will distribute only such amount as can be distributed without attributing to any depositary share a fraction of one cent, and any balance not so distributed will be added to and treated as part of the next sum received by the depositary for distribution to record holders of depositary receipts then outstanding.
In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary receipts entitled thereto, in proportion, as nearly as may be practicable, to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, unless the depositary determines (after consultation with us) that it is not feasible to make such distribution, in which case the depositary may (with our approval) adopt any other method for such distribution as it deems equitable and appropriate, including the sale of such property (at such place or places and upon such terms as it may deem equitable and appropriate) and distribution of the net proceeds from such sale to such holders.
No distribution will be made in respect of any depositary share to the extent that it represents any preferred stock transferred to a trust for the benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
Liquidation Preference
In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company, whether voluntary or involuntary, the holders of each depositary share will be entitled to the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Redemption
If the series of preferred stock represented by the applicable series of depositary shares is redeemable, such depositary shares will be redeemed from the proceeds received by the depositary resulting from the redemption, in whole or in part, of the preferred stock held by the depositary. Whenever we redeem any preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing the shares of preferred stock so redeemed. The depositary will mail the notice of redemption promptly upon receipt of such notice from us and not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption of the preferred stock and the depositary shares to the record holders of the depositary receipts.
 
Voting
Promptly upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the series of preferred stock represented by the applicable series of depositary shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in such notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts as of the record date for such meeting. Each such record holder of depositary receipts will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of

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shares of preferred stock represented by such record holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote such preferred stock represented by such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions, and we will agree to take all action which may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will abstain from voting any of the preferred stock to the extent that it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary receipts.
Withdrawal of Preferred Stock
Upon surrender of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary and payment of any unpaid amount due the depositary, and subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, the owner of the depositary shares evidenced thereby is entitled to delivery of the number of whole shares of preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented by such depositary shares. Partial shares of preferred stock will not be issued. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to such holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing such excess number of depositary shares. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn will not thereafter be entitled to deposit such shares under the deposit agreement or to receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.
Amendment and Termination of Deposit Agreement
The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may at any time and from time to time be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment which materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders (other than any change in fees) of depositary shares will not be effective unless such amendment has been approved by at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding. No such amendment may impair the right, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, of any owner of any depositary shares to surrender the depositary receipt evidencing such depositary shares with instructions to the depositary to deliver to the holder of the preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented thereby, except in order to comply with mandatory provisions of applicable law.
The deposit agreement will be permitted to be terminated by us upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice to the applicable depositary if (1) such termination is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT or (2) a majority of each series of preferred stock affected by such termination consents to such termination, whereupon such depositary will be required to deliver or make available to each holder of depositary receipts, upon surrender of the depositary receipts held by such holder, such number of whole or fractional shares of preferred stock as are represented by the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipts together with any other property held by such depositary with respect to such depositary receipts. We will agree that if the deposit agreement is terminated to preserve our status as a REIT, then we will use our best efforts to list the preferred stock issued upon surrender of the related depositary shares on a national securities exchange. In addition, the deposit agreement will automatically terminate if (a) all outstanding depositary shares thereunder shall have been redeemed, (b) there shall have been a final distribution in respect of the related preferred stock in connection with any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company and such distribution shall have been distributed to the holders of depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares representing such preferred stock or (c) each share of the related preferred stock shall have been converted into stock of our company not so represented by depositary shares.
Charges of Depositary
We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and initial issuance of the depositary shares, and redemption of the preferred stock and all withdrawals of preferred stock by owners of depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and certain other charges as are provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. In certain circumstances, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, may withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipt if such charges are not paid. The applicable prospectus supplement will include information with respect to fees and charges, if any, in connection with the deposit or substitution of the underlying securities, the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the underlying security, and the transferring, splitting or grouping of receipts. The applicable prospectus supplement will also include information with respect to the right to collect the fees and charges, if any, against dividends received and deposited securities.

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Miscellaneous
The depositary will forward to the holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and proxy soliciting material from us which are delivered to the depositary and which we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any notices, reports and proxy soliciting material received from us which are received by the depositary as the holder of preferred stock. The applicable prospectus supplement will include information about the rights, if any, of holders of receipts to inspect the transfer books of the depositary and the list of holders of receipts.
Neither the depositary nor our company assumes any obligation, or will be subject to any liability under the deposit agreement, to holders of depositary receipts other than for its negligence or willful misconduct. Neither the depositary nor our company will be liable if it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations under the deposit agreement. The obligations of our company and the depositary under the deposit agreement will be limited to performance in good faith of their duties thereunder, and they will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. Our company and the depositary may rely on written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by holders of the depositary receipts or other persons believed in good faith to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.
In the event the depositary shall receive conflicting claims, requests or instructions from any holders of depositary receipts, on the one hand, and us, on the other hand, the depositary shall be entitled to act on such claims, requests or instructions received from us.
Resignation and Removal of Depositary
The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the depositary, any such resignation or removal to take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. Such successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice for resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having a combined capital and surplus of at least $150,000,000.
 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.
The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:
the number of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or depositary shares purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon such exercise;
the designation, stated value and terms (including, without limitation, liquidation, dividend, conversion and voting rights) of the series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of warrants to purchase preferred stock or depositary shares;
the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;
the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares will be separately transferable;
the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;
a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the warrants; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.
Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled to:
vote, consent or receive dividends;
receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or
exercise any rights as our stockholders.
Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or depositary shares at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
 
A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt securities or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock or depositary shares are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the common stock or preferred stock, if any.
 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
We may issue rights to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The statements made in this section relating to the rights are summaries only. These summaries are not complete. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement will contain the material terms and conditions for each right. To the extent the information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement. For more detail, we refer you to the applicable rights agreement itself, which we will file as an exhibit to, or incorporate by reference in, the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
If we offer any series of rights, certain terms of that series of rights will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following:
the title of the rights;
the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;
the title and aggregate number of shares of our common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of the rights;
the exercise price;
the aggregate number of rights issued;
the date, if any, on and after which the rights will be separately transferable;
the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the right will expire;
a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the rights; and
any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights.
Exercise of Rights
Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of our common stock or preferred stock at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised rights will be void.
Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of our common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers, or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby underwriting arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.
The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement relating to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions, and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.
If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:
the title of the series of units;
identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;
the price or prices at which the units will be issued;
the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;
a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the units; and
any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.
 

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GLOBAL SECURITIES
Book-Entry, Delivery and Form
Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.
DTC has advised us that it is:
a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;
a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;
a member of the Federal Reserve System;
a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and
a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.
DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
 
So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.
Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

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Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.
Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.
So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.
Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.
Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.
The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.
As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:
 
DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be,
we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities, or
an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,
we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.
We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.
 

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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER
The following is a summary of the general terms and provisions of our charter regarding restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock. This summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter. A copy of our charter is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is incorporated by reference herein. See “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference.”
To qualify as a REIT under the Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of twelve months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of our outstanding shares of stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities such as qualified pension plans) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).
Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock and outstanding capital stock which are intended to assist us in complying with these requirements and continuing to qualify as a REIT, among other purposes. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity (other than a designated investment entity) may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock (the common stock ownership limit) or 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding capital stock (the aggregate stock ownership limit). No designated investment entity (as defined in our charter) may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or 9.8% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding capital stock. We refer to these restrictions as the “ownership limits.” In addition, different excepted holder ownership limits apply to the family of Kenneth M. Woolley, our Chairman, and certain of his affiliates, family members and estates and trusts formed for the benefit of the foregoing, and Spencer F. Kirk, a director and our former Chief Executive Officer, and certain of his affiliates, family members and estates and trusts formed for the benefit of the foregoing. A person or entity that becomes subject to the ownership limit by virtue of a violative transfer that results in a transfer to a trust, as set forth below, is referred to as a “purported beneficial transferee” if, had the violative transfer been effective, the person or entity would have been a record owner and beneficial owner or solely a beneficial owner of our common stock, or is referred to as a ‘‘purported record transferee’’ if, had the violative transfer been effective, the person or entity would have been solely a record owner of our common stock.
Our charter defines a “designated investment entity” as:
an entity that is a pension trust that qualifies for look-through treatment under Section 856(h) of the Code;
an entity that qualifies as a regulated investment company under Section 851 of the Code; or
an entity that (a) for compensation engages in the business of advising others as to the value of securities or as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities; (b) purchases securities in the ordinary course of its business and not with the purpose or effect of changing or influencing control of us, nor in connection with or as a participant in any transaction having such purpose or effect, including any transaction subject to Rule 13d-3(b) of the Exchange Act; and (c) has or shares voting power and investment power within the meaning of Rule 13d-3(a) under the Exchange Act, so long as such beneficial owner of such entity, or in the case of an investment management company, the individual account holders of the accounts managed by such entity, would satisfy the 7.0% ownership limit if such beneficial owner or account holder owned directly its proportionate share of the shares held by the entity.
 
The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding capital stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our capital stock by an individual or entity), could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or 7.0% (by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding capital stock, and thereby violate one or more of the applicable ownership limits.

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Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, waive (prospectively or retroactively) the applicable ownership limit with respect to a particular stockholder if:
our board of directors obtains such representations and undertakings from such stockholder as are reasonably necessary to ascertain that no person’s beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock will result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT;
our board of directors determines that such stockholder does not own, and will not own, actually or constructively, an interest in a tenant of ours (or a tenant of any entity owned in whole or in part by us) that would cause us to own, actually or constructively, more than a 9.9% interest (as set forth in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code) in such tenant (or our board of directors determines that revenue derived from such tenant will not affect our ability to qualify as a REIT) and our board of directors obtains such representations and undertakings from such stockholder as are reasonably necessary to ascertain this fact; and
such stockholder agrees that any violation or attempted violation of such representations or undertakings, or other action which is contrary to the restrictions described herein, will result in such shares of stock being automatically transferred to a charitable trust.
As a condition of our waiver, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or an Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, ruling satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to our REIT qualification. Notwithstanding the receipt of any such opinion or ruling, our board of directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with granting such waiver.
In connection with the waiver of an ownership limit or at any other time, our board of directors may from time to time increase or decrease the ownership limit for all other persons and entities; provided, however, that any decrease may be made only prospectively as to subsequent holders (other than a decrease as a result of a retroactive change in existing law, in which case the decrease shall be effective immediately); and the ownership limit may not be increased if, after giving effect to such increase, five persons (other than a designated investment entity) could beneficially own or constructively own in the aggregate, more than 49.9% of the value of our shares of capital stock then outstanding. A reduced ownership limit will not apply to any person or entity whose percentage ownership in our common stock or capital stock, as applicable, is in excess of such decreased ownership limit until such time as such person or entity’s percentage of our common stock or our capital stock, as applicable, equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, but any further acquisition of our common stock or capital stock, as applicable, in excess of such percentage ownership of our common stock or capital stock will be in violation of the ownership limit.
Our charter further prohibits:
any person from beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and
 
any person from transferring shares of our common stock if such transfer would result in shares of our common stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).
Any person who acquires or attempts to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our capital stock that will, or may, violate any of the foregoing restrictions on transferability and ownership, will be required to give written notice immediately to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer or attempted transfer on our qualification as a REIT. The foregoing provisions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT.
Pursuant to our charter, if any transfer of common stock would result in such shares being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, such transfer will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. In addition, if any purported transfer of our capital stock, or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits, or such other limit as established by our board of directors, or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code, or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares (rounded up to the nearest whole share) that would cause us to violate such restrictions will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us and the intended transferees will acquire no rights in such shares. The trustee of the trust will have all of the voting rights and rights to dividends or other distributions with respect to shares held in the trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the purported record transferee, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand for distribution to the beneficiary of the trust. If the

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transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent the violation, then our charter provides that the transfer of the shares will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares.
Shares of our capital stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the purported record transferee for the shares (or, if the event which resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares of our stock at market price, the last reported sales price on the trading day immediately preceding the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of our stock to the trust) and (2) the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our capital stock held in the trust pursuant to the clauses discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the purported record transferee and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such capital stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.
If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits. After that, the trustee must distribute to the purported record transferee an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the purported record transferee for the shares (or, if the event which resulted in the transfer to the trust did not involve a purchase of such shares at market price, the last reported sales price reported on the trading day immediately preceding the relevant date) and (2) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trust for the shares. The purported beneficial transferee or purported record transferee has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.
The trustee shall be designated by us and shall be unaffiliated with us and with any purported record transferee or purported beneficial transferee. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares, and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares.
Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee shall have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:
 
to rescind as void any vote cast by a purported record transferee prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and
to recast such vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.
However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.
Any beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our capital stock and any person or entity (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our capital stock for a beneficial owner must, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, provide us with a completed questionnaire containing the information regarding their ownership of such shares, as set forth in the applicable Treasury Regulations. In addition, any person or entity that is a beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our capital stock and any person or entity (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our capital stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner shall, on request, be required to disclose to us in writing such information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such stockholder’s actual and constructive ownership of shares of our capital stock on our qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits, or as otherwise permitted by our board of directors.
All certificates, if any, representing shares of our capital stock bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.
These ownership limits could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.
 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE
PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF EXTRA SPACE STORAGE LP
The following is a summary of the material provisions in the partnership agreement of our operating partnership. For more detail, you should refer to the partnership agreement itself, a copy of which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.” For purposes of this section, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” and “our company” refer to Extra Space Storage Inc.
General; Management
Our operating partnership was formed on May 5, 2004. As of March 31, 2019, our operating partnership had outstanding 5,908,750 common OP units, 875,480 Series A Participating Redeemable Preferred Units, or Series A units, 1,676,087 Series B Redeemable Preferred Units, or Series B units, 296,020 Series C Convertible Redeemable Preferred Units, or Series C units, and 4,620,445 Series D Redeemable Preferred Units, or Series D units. In April 2019, all outstanding 296,020 Series C units were converted into 270,710 common OP units. We collectively refer to the Series A units, Series B units, Series C units and Series D units as preferred OP units, and we collectively refer to the common OP units and preferred OP units as OP units. We held 90.5% of all outstanding OP units as of March 31, 2019 through two wholly owned Massachusetts business trusts, one of which is the sole general partner of the operating partnership and the other is a limited partner. The remaining 9.5% of the partnership interests were held by other limited partners. Pursuant to the partnership agreement, through our ownership of the operating partnership’s sole general partner, we have, subject to certain protective rights of limited partners described below, full, exclusive and complete responsibility and discretion in the management and control of the operating partnership, including the ability to cause the operating partnership to enter into certain major transactions, including a merger of the operating partnership or a sale of substantially all of its assets.
Our operating partnership’s limited partners expressly acknowledged that, as the sole owner of the general partner interests through a wholly owned Massachusetts business trust, we are acting for the benefit of the operating partnership, the limited partners and our stockholders collectively. We are under no obligation to give priority to the separate interests of the limited partners or our stockholders in deciding whether to cause the operating partnership to take, or decline to take, any actions.
Management Liability and Indemnification
The general partner and its trustees and officers are not liable to the operating partnership for losses sustained, liabilities incurred or benefits not derived as a result of errors in judgment or mistakes of fact or law or of any act or omission, so long as it acted in good faith. The partnership agreement provides for indemnification of us, any of our directors, and both our operating partnership’s and our officers or employees and other persons as the general partner may designate from and against all losses, claims, damages, liabilities, expenses, judgments, fines, settlements and other amounts incurred in connection with any actions relating to our operating partnership’s operations, as set forth in the partnership agreement (subject to the exceptions described below under “-Fiduciary Responsibilities”).
Fiduciary Responsibilities
Our directors and officers have duties under applicable Maryland law to our company. At the same time, our operating partnership’s general partner has fiduciary duties under applicable Delaware law to the operating partnership and its limited partners. Our duties, through the general partner, to our operating partnership and its limited partners, therefore, may come into conflict with the duties of our directors and officers to our company.
The partnership agreement expressly limits our liability and that of the general partner by providing that we and our officers and directors and the general partner and its officers and trustees are not liable or accountable in damages to the operating partnership, its limited partners or assignees for errors in judgment or mistakes of fact or law or of any act or omission if we or our director or officer acted in good faith. In addition, our operating partnership is required to indemnify us, the general partner, a trustee of the general partner, our directors, officers and employees and the directors, officers and employees of our operating partnership to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities, expenses, judgments, fines and other actions incurred by our operating partnership or the other persons in connection with any actions relating to our operating partnership’s operations, provided that our operating partnership will not indemnify for willful misconduct or a knowing violation of the law, for any transaction for which the person received an improper personal benefit in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement or, in the case of any criminal proceeding, if the person had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

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Distributions
The partnership agreement provides that holders of OP units are entitled to receive quarterly distributions of available cash as follows:
(1) first, to holders of Series A units (a) pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests, an amount equal to a fixed priority return of 2.3% on a stated amount of $101.7 million, and (b) the distributions that holders of Series A units would be entitled to receive if the Series A units were treated as part of a single class of units with common OP units and the Series A units shared in distribution with the common OP units pursuant to clause (4) below proportionately based on the total aggregate number of outstanding Series A units and common OP units;
(2) second, (a) to holders of Series B units pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests, an amount equal to a fixed priority return of 6.0% on a stated amount of $25.00 per Series B unit, (b) to holders of Series C units pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests, a priority quarterly return per unit equal to the average quarterly distribution payable in respect of such Series C units during the four consecutive fiscal quarters prior to the fifth anniversary of the date of issuance of such units, and (c) to holders of Series D units pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests, an amount equal to a fixed priority return, the rate of which will be established by the operating partnership and the holders of such Series D units upon issuance thereof;
(3) third, with respect to any OP units that are entitled to any preference, other than the preferred OP units, in accordance with their respective percentage interests; and
(4) fourth, with respect to any OP units that are not entitled to any preference in distribution, in accordance with the rights of such class of OP unit (and, within such class, pro rata in accordance with their respective percentage interests).
Allocations of Net Income and Net Loss
Net income and net loss of our operating partnership are determined and allocated with respect to each fiscal year of our operating partnership as of the end of the year. Except as otherwise provided in the partnership agreement, an allocation of a share of net income or net loss is treated as an allocation of the same share of each item of income, gain, loss or deduction that is taken into account in computing net income or net loss. Please see “U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences-Taxation of Our Company-Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies-Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction” for a summary of certain provisions in the partnership agreement relating to allocations of partnership income and loss. Except as otherwise provided in the partnership agreement, for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the Code and the Treasury Regulations, each operating partnership item of income, gain, loss and deduction is allocated among the operating partnership’s limited partners in the same manner as its correlative item of book income, gain, loss or deduction is allocated pursuant to the partnership agreement.
Redemption Rights
After the first anniversary of becoming a holder of common OP units, each of the limited partners of our operating partnership has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of the common OP units held by the party in exchange for a cash amount equal to the value of its common OP units, unless the terms of such common OP units or a separate agreement entered into between our operating partnership and the holder of such OP units provide that they are not entitled to a right of redemption. On or before the close of business on the tenth business day after our operating partnership receives a notice of redemption, we may, in our sole and absolute discretion, but subject to the restrictions on the ownership of our common stock imposed under our charter and the transfer restrictions and other limitations thereof, elect to acquire some or all of the tendered common OP units from the tendering holder in exchange for shares of our common stock, based on an exchange ratio of one share of our common stock for each common OP unit (subject to antidilution adjustments provided in the partnership agreement).
Each holder of Series A units has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement or in any separate agreement that provides otherwise, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of its Series A units in exchange for a cash amount equal to, per Series A unit, the sum of (1) $101.7 million divided by the total number of Series A units outstanding, (2) any unpaid distributions with respect to such Series A unit and (3) the average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days prior to the date of determination, multiplied by a factor that is adjusted for stock dividends, splits (reverse or otherwise) or subdivisions, which sum we refer to as the Series A unit redemption amount. We may, in our sole and absolute discretion, but subject to the restrictions on the ownership of our common stock imposed under our charter and the transfer restrictions and other limitations thereof, elect to acquire some or all of the tendered Series A units from the tendering holder in exchange for the number of shares of our common stock equal to the Series A unit redemption

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amount divided by the average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days prior to the date of determination.
After the first anniversary of the date of issuance, each holder of Series B units, Series C units or Series D units has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement or in any separate agreement that provides otherwise, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of such units in exchange for a cash redemption amount equal to: (1) for each Series B unit, the sum of (a) $25.00 and (b) any unpaid distributions with respect to such Series B unit; (2) for each Series C unit, the sum of (a) $42.10 and (b) any unpaid distributions with respect to such Series C unit; and (3) for each Series D unit, the sum of (a) $25.00 and (b) any unpaid distributions with respect to such Series D unit. We may, in our sole and absolute discretion, but subject to the restrictions on the ownership of our common stock imposed under our charter and the transfer restrictions and other limitations thereof, elect to acquire some or all of the tendered Series B units, Series C units or Series D units from the tendering holder in exchange for the number of shares of our common stock equal to the applicable redemption amount divided by the average closing price of our common stock on the NYSE for the ten consecutive trading days prior to the date of determination.
Conversion Rights
After the first anniversary of the date of issuance until and including the fifth anniversary of the date of issuance, each holder of Series C units has the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement or in any separate agreement that provides otherwise, to convert all or a portion of such units into approximately 0.9145 common OP units per Series C unit (adjusted for any unpaid distributions with respect to such Series C unit). In April 2019, all outstanding 296,020 Series C units were converted into 270,710 common OP units.
Transferability of OP Units
In general, the general partner may not voluntarily withdraw from our operating partnership or transfer all or a portion of its interest in our operating partnership unless the holders of limited partnership interests entitled to vote consent by approval of a majority in interest or immediately after a merger of us into another entity or the sale of all or substantially all of our assets. With certain limited exceptions, the limited partners may not transfer their interests, in whole or in part, without the written consent of the general partner, which consent may be withheld in the general partner’s sole discretion.
 
Issuance of OP Units or Our Stock
We, through our ownership of our operating partnership’s sole general partner, have the ability to cause our operating partnership to issue additional partnership interests in the form of OP units. These additional OP units may include preference terms with provisions and rights that are preferential to those of common OP units. However, so long as any preferred OP units remain issued and outstanding, our operating partnership may not (1) (a) authorize or issue any securities, (b) reclassify any OP units into interests or (c) authorize or issue any debt convertible into or exchangeable for OP units, in the case of Series A units, having any preference as to or on parity with the dividend or redemption rights, liquidation preferences, conversion rights, voting rights or any other rights or privileges of the Series A units, and in the case of Series B units, Series C units and Series D units, having any preference as to the dividend or redemption rights, liquidation preferences, conversion rights, voting rights or any other rights or privileges of such units (other than additional Series A units in accordance with the partnership agreement), or (2) amend or repeal any provision of, or add any provision to the partnership agreement if such actions would alter or change the preferences, rights, privileges or restrictions provided for the benefit of the preferred OP units that remain issued and outstanding.
In addition, upon the issuance of our stock other than in connection with a redemption of OP units, we will generally be obligated to contribute or cause to be contributed the cash proceeds or other consideration received from the issuance to our operating partnership in exchange for, in the case of common stock, OP units, or in the case of an issuance of preferred stock, preferred OP units with designations, preferences and other rights, terms and provisions that are substantially the same as the designations, preferences and other rights, terms and provisions of the preferred stock.
Tax Matters
Pursuant to the partnership agreement, the general partner is the operating partnership’s tax matters partner. Accordingly, through our role as the owner of the general partner, we have the authority to handle or cause to be handled tax audits and to make or cause to be made tax elections under the Code on the operating partnership’s behalf.

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Term
The term of the operating partnership commenced on May 5, 2004 and will continue until December 31, 2104, unless one of the following events takes place:
the general partner’s bankruptcy, judicial dissolution or withdrawal (unless, in the case of a bankruptcy or withdrawal, a majority-in-interest of the remaining limited partners agree to continue the operating partnership and to the appointment of a successor general partner);
the sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the operating partnership’s assets;
redemption (or acquisition by the general partner) of all OP units other than OP units held by the general partner or us;
an election by the general partner in its capacity as the operating partnership’s sole general partner;
an entry of decree of judicial dissolution of the operating partnership pursuant to Delaware law; or
the incapacity of the general partner, unless all of the remaining partners agree in writing to continue the operating partnership and to the appointment of a substitute general partner.
Upon the occurrence of any of the foregoing events, and subject to the terms of the partnership agreement regarding the payment of liabilities, after any appropriate allocation of net income and net loss, distributions to the partners of our operating partnership will be made (1) first to the holders of Series A units (and proportionately among those holders) in an amount equal to the Series A unit redemption amount for each Series A unit, (2) second to the holders of Series B units, Series C units and Series D units (and proportionately among those holders) in an amount equal to the applicable redemption amount for each such unit and (3) thereafter to the holders of other OP units. However, the voluntary sale, conveyance, lease, exchange or transfer (for cash, shares of stock, securities or other consideration) of all or substantially all of the property or assets of the operating partnership to, or the consolidation or merger or other business combination of the operating partnership with or into, any corporation, trust or other entity (or of any corporation, trust or other entity with or into the operating partnership) will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the operating partnership for these purposes.
 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and to our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Our Board of Directors
Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established by our board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number permitted under the MGCL nor more than 15. Except as may be provided by our board of directors in setting the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, any vacancy may be filled, at any regular meeting or at any special meeting called for that purpose, only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and the director elected to fill the vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies.
Each of our directors is elected by our common stockholders entitled to vote to serve until the next annual meeting and until their successors are duly elected and qualify. Pursuant to our bylaws, directors in uncontested elections are elected upon the affirmative vote of a majority of the total votes cast for and against such nominee at a duly called meeting of stockholders, and directors in contested elections are elected by a plurality of all of the votes cast. In both uncontested and contested elections, holders of shares of our common stock have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Consequently, at each annual meeting of stockholders, the holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock entitled to vote will be able to elect all of our directors (subject to the rights of our preferred stock and any other class or series of stock to elect directors).
Removal of Directors
Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes of stockholders entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, precludes stockholders from removing incumbent directors except upon the existence of cause for removal and a substantial affirmative vote, and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.
Business Combinations
Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (i.e., any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation) or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (1) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation and (2) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. Our board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.
 
These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has by resolution exempted Kenneth M. Woolley, his affiliates and associates and all persons acting in concert with the foregoing, and Spencer F. Kirk, his affiliates and associates and all persons acting in concert with the foregoing, from these provisions of the MGCL and, consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any person described above. As a result, any person described above may be able to enter

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into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interests of our stockholders without compliance by our company with the supermajority vote requirements and the other provisions of the statute.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to the control shares except to the extent approved at a special meeting by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of shares of stock of the corporation in the election of directors: (1) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (2) an officer of the corporation or (3) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock owned by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (a) one-tenth or more but less than one-third, (b) one-third or more but less than a majority, or (c) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made, or proposes to make, a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses), may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand and undertaking to pay expenses to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply (1) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or statutory share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.
Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of our stock. There can be no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.
 
Other Takeover Defense Provisions of Maryland Law
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and with at least three independent directors to elect to be subject by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:
a classified board;
a two-thirds vote requirement to remove a director;
a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by the vote of the directors;
a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of class of directors in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies; and
a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.
Pursuant to Subtitle 8, we have elected to provide that vacancies on our board may be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) require the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-

26



thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter for the removal of any director from the board, which removal is only allowed for cause and (2) require the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast at such meeting to call a special meeting of our stockholders, unless such meeting is called by our chairman of the board, our president, our chief executive officer or the board.
Amendment to Our Charter and Bylaws
Except for amendments relating to removal of directors and the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and amendments relating to the vote required to amend these provisions (which each require the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter), our charter may be amended only if declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Our board of directors has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws. Additionally, our bylaws may be amended by stockholders by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Dissolution of Our Company
The dissolution of our company must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Proxy Access
Our bylaws include provisions permitting, subject to certain eligibility, procedural and disclosure requirements, qualifying stockholders, or a qualifying group of no more than 20 stockholders, who have maintained continuous ownership of at least 3% of our outstanding shares of common stock for at least three years to require us to include in our proxy materials for an annual meeting of stockholders a number of director nominees constituting up to 20% of the number of directors serving on our board of directors (rounded down to the nearest whole number, but not less than one).
 
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of directors or on the proposal of other business, as the case may be, and who has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.
With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (3) provided that our board of directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice and at the time of the special meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.
Generally, under our bylaws, a stockholder seeking to nominate a director or bring other business before our annual meeting of stockholders must deliver a notice to our secretary not later than 5:00 p.m., Mountain Time, on the 120
th
day, nor earlier than the 150
th
day, prior to the first anniversary of the date of the proxy statement for the prior year’s annual meeting. In addition, a stockholder seeking to nominate a director at a special meeting of stockholders must deliver notice to our secretary not earlier than the 150
th
day prior to such special meeting nor later than 5:00 p.m., Mountain Time, on the later of the 120
th
day prior to such special meeting or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by our board of directors to be elected at such meeting. For a stockholder seeking to nominate a candidate for our board of directors, the notice must describe various matters regarding the nominee, including name, address, occupation and number of shares held, and other specified matters. For a stockholder seeking to propose other business, the notice must include a description of the proposed business, the reasons for the proposal and other specified matters.

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Anti-Takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change of control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders, including business combination provisions, supermajority vote and cause requirements for removal of directors and advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals. Likewise, if the provision in the bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were rescinded, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.
Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from (1) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (2) active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision which eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
The MGCL requires a corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our company’s charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made, or threatened to be made, a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:
 
the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (1) was committed in bad faith or (2) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;
the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or
in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify for an adverse judgment in a suit by or in the right of the corporation or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL permits a corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:
a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and
a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.
Our charter authorizes us to obligate us and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:
any present or former director or officer who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or
any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner or trustee of another corporation, REIT, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
The partnership agreement provides that we and our officers and directors are indemnified to the maximum extent permitted by law. See “Description of the Partnership Agreement of Extra Space Storage LP-Management Liability and Indemnification.”

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We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers. The indemnification agreements require, among other matters, that we indemnify our directors and executive officers to the maximum extent permitted by law and advance to the directors and executive officers all related expenses, subject to reimbursement if it is subsequently determined that indemnification is not permitted. Under these agreements, we must also indemnify and advance all expenses incurred by directors and executive officers seeking to enforce their rights under the indemnification agreements and may cover directors and executive officers under our directors’ and officers’ liability insurance. Although indemnification agreements offer substantially the same scope of coverage afforded under the bylaws, they provide greater assurance to directors and executive officers that indemnification will be available, because, as contracts, they cannot be modified unilaterally in the future by the board of directors to eliminate the rights they provide.
 
Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
REIT Qualification
Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT.
 

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U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES
The following is a general summary of material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to our qualification and taxation as a REIT and the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock. Supplemental U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to holders of the securities offered by this prospectus may be provided in the prospectus supplement that relates to those securities. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Extra Space Storage Inc., and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:
the Code;
current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code, or the Treasury Regulations;
the legislative history of the Code;
administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS; and
court decisions;
in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.
You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:
the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;
our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
potential changes in applicable tax laws.
Taxation of Our Company
General
We elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2004. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “-Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.
Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our election to be taxed as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with

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our taxable year ended December 31, 2004, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.
Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:
First, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.
Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.
Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.
Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.
Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset test), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.
 
Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.
Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.
Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year

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in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.
Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.
Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “-Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.
Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.
Twelfth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined under applicable Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.
We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.
Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.
The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:
(1)
that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
(2)
that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;
(3)
that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;
 
(4)
that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;
(5)
that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;
(6)
not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and
(7)
that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.
The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.
We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then, except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares

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and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “-Failure to Qualify.”
In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.
Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries
. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of our operating partnership, including our operating partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships is set forth below in “-Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”
We have control of our operating partnership and most of its subsidiary partnerships and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. We are an indirect limited partner or non-managing member in some of the subsidiary partnerships. If a partnership in which we directly or indirectly own an interest takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In such a case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.
 
We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “-Asset Tests.” This treatment also applies to other subsidiaries of a REIT that are treated as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes, such as the business trusts we own.
Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.
We currently hold an interest in a number of taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a taxable REIT subsidiary or as receiving any income that the taxable REIT subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the taxable REIT subsidiary is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the taxable REIT subsidiary. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “-Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. See “-Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our taxable REIT subsidiaries to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.

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Income Tests
We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.
Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:
The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;
 
Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;
Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and
We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a taxable REIT subsidiary (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants, without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”
We generally do not intend, and, as the indirect general partner of our operating partnership, we do not intend to permit our operating partnership, to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we generally have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.
From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and

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forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.
 
From time to time we may acquire additional properties outside the United States, through a taxable REIT subsidiary or otherwise. These acquisitions could cause us to incur foreign currency gains or losses. Any foreign currency gains, to the extent attributable to specified items of qualifying income or gain, or specified qualifying assets, however, generally will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests, and therefore will be excluded from these tests.
To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries pay dividends, we generally will derive our allocable share of such dividend income through our interest in our operating partnership. Such dividend income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test. We also derive our allocable share of royalty income earned by our operating partnership from one of our taxable REIT subsidiaries on account of its insurance business. Such royalty income will not qualify under the 95% or 75% gross income tests. The royalty agreement between our operating partnership and such taxable REIT subsidiary provides, among other things, that beginning with our 2016 taxable year the amount of such royalty income, together with any other nonqualifying income, will not exceed 3.9% of our gross income for any year for purposes of the 95% gross income test, or 20% of our gross income for any year for purposes of the 75% gross income test, whichever is more restrictive.
We will monitor the amount of the dividend, royalty and other income from our taxable REIT subsidiaries and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.
If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:
following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and
our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.
It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “-Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “-General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.
Prohibited Transaction Income
. Any gain that we realize on the sale of property (other than any foreclosure property) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiary partnerships, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as
inventory
or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. As the indirect general partner of our operating partnership, we intend to cause our operating partnership to hold its properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning its properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our investment objectives. Except as provided below, we do not intend, and do not intend to permit our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions.

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However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. We are an indirect partner in certain partnerships which sell locks, boxes and packing materials to tenants. We report our allocable share of the income from these activities as prohibited transaction income. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a taxable REIT subsidiary, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.
Penalty Tax
. Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.
From time to time our taxable REIT subsidiaries may provide services to our tenants. We believe we have set, and we intend to continue to set, any fees paid to our taxable REIT subsidiaries for such services at arm’s length rates, although the amounts paid may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions described above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.
Asset Tests
At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on both real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs, and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.
Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.
Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor, securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.
Fourth, not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008 and before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.
 
Our operating partnership currently owns, directly and indirectly, the stock of certain corporations, including Extra Space Management, Inc., that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our indirect ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% (25% for taxable years beginning after July 30, 2008

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and before January 1, 2018) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.
Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).
The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any partnership or qualified REIT subsidiary) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer will increase as a result of our capital contributions to our operating partnership or as limited partners exercise any redemption/exchange rights. Also, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.
Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the
de minimis
exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.
Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our operating partnership’s overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.
Annual Distribution Requirements
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:
90% of our REIT taxable income; and
90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus
the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.
 
For these purposes, our REIT taxable income is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.
In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “-General.”

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For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and except as provided below, a taxpayer’s deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of its taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years. If we or any of our subsidiary partnerships (including our operating partnership) are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We believe that we or any of our subsidiary partnerships that are subject to this interest expense limitation will be eligible to make this election. If such election is made, although we or such subsidiary partnership, as applicable, would not be subject to the interest expense limitation described above, depreciation deductions may be reduced and, as a result, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased.
We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential-
i.e.
, every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a publicly offered REIT. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount. We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In this regard, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership authorizes ESS Holdings Business Trust I, our wholly owned subsidiary and the general partner of our operating partnership, and us, as the indirect general partner of our operating partnership, to take such steps as may be necessary to cause our operating partnership to distribute to its partners an amount sufficient to permit us to meet these distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligation.
We expect that our REIT taxable income will typically be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.
 
Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.
Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.
For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

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Like-Kind Exchanges
We may dispose of real property that is not held primarily for sale in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, or deficiency dividends, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.
Tax Liabilities and Attributes Inherited in Connection with Acquisitions
From time to time, we or our operating partnership may acquire other corporations or entities and, in connection with such acquisitions, we may succeed to the historical tax attributes and liabilities of such entities. For example, if we acquire a C corporation and subsequently dispose of its assets within five years of the acquisition, we could be required to pay the built-in gain tax described above under “-General.” In addition, in order to qualify as a REIT, at the end of any taxable year, we must not have any earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year. As a result, if we acquire a C corporation (including upon a liquidation of a taxable REIT subsidiary), we must distribute the corporation’s earnings and profits accumulated prior to the acquisition before the end of the taxable year in which we acquire the corporation. We also could be required to pay the acquired entity’s unpaid taxes even though such liabilities arose prior to the time we acquired the entity.
Moreover, we may from time to time acquire other REITs through a merger or acquisition. If any such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, such REIT would be liable for (and we, as the surviving corporation in the merger or acquisition, would be obligated to pay) regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on its taxable income for such taxable years. In addition, if such REIT was a C corporation at the time of the merger or acquisition, the tax consequences described in the preceding paragraph generally would apply. If such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, but qualified as a REIT at the time of such merger or acquisition, and we acquired such REIT’s assets in a transaction in which our tax basis in the assets of such REIT is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to such REIT’s tax basis in such assets, we generally would be subject to tax on the built-in gain on each asset of such REIT as described above if we were to dispose of the asset in a taxable transaction during the five-year period following such REIT’s requalification as a REIT, subject to certain exceptions. Moreover, even if such REIT qualified as a REIT at all relevant times, we would similarly be liable for other unpaid taxes (if any) of such REIT (such as the 100% tax on gains from any sales treated as “prohibited transactions” as described above under “-Prohibited Transaction Income”).
Furthermore, after our acquisition of another corporation or entity, the asset and income tests will apply to all of our assets, including the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity, and to all of our income, including the income derived from the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity. As a result, the nature of the assets that we acquire from such corporation or entity and the income we derive from those assets may have an effect on our tax status as a REIT.
 
Failure to Qualify
If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of “qualified REIT dividends” (generally, dividends from a REIT received during the taxable year other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income) for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations. See “-Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock-Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock-Tax Rates” below. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the

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four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.
Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies
General
. All of our investments are held indirectly through our operating partnership. In addition, our operating partnership holds certain of its investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that we believe are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners of such partnerships are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership. We will include in our income our share of these partnership items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including its share of the assets of its subsidiary partnerships, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “-Taxation of Our Company-Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries.” A disregarded entity is not treated as a separate entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a disregarded entity are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of its parent that is not a disregarded entity (e.g., our operating partnership) for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests.
Entity Classification
. Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership,” or PTP, and certain other requirements are met. A partnership would be treated as a PTP if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. Interests in a partnership are not treated as readily tradable on a secondary market, or the substantial equivalent thereof, if the requirements of certain safe harbors are met. The operating partnership may avoid becoming a PTP by complying with one or more of these safe harbors. However, no assurance can be given that the operating partnership will always satisfy such a safe harbor.
 
If our operating partnership fails to satisfy a safe harbor from treatment as a PTP, due to the redemption rights of its partners and certain other provisions of its partnership agreement, it is possible that in certain circumstances the operating partnership could be treated as a PTP. If the operating partnership is treated as a PTP and 90% or more of the operating partnership’s gross income consists of dividends, interest, “rents from real property” (as that term is defined for purposes of the rules applicable to REITs, with certain modifications), gain from the sale or other disposition of real property, and certain other types of qualifying income, it would continue to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes under what we refer to as the “Qualifying Income Exception.” However, partners in a PTP meeting the Qualifying Income Exception may not use their share of passive income or loss of the PTP to offset their passive income or loss from other sources. We, as the indirect general partner of our operating partnership, have the authority to allow the operating partnership to become a PTP, provided the operating partnership would satisfy the Qualifying Income Exception (as we believe would be the case). While the operating partnership currently plans to comply with certain safe harbors under the Treasury Regulations to avoid PTP status, we may allow the operating partnership to become a PTP in the future.
If our operating partnership or any of our other partnerships were to be treated as a PTP, and failed to satisfy the Qualifying Income Exception, that partnership would be taxable as a corporation. If that were to occur, the partnership would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “-Taxation of Our Company-Asset Tests” and “-Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “-Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership or a subsidiary treated as a partnership or disregarded entity to a corporation might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment.
We believe our operating partnership and each of the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and we do not anticipate that our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership will be treated as a PTP that is taxable as a corporation.

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Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction
. The operating partnership agreement generally provides that (1) net income generally is allocated first to the partners to the extent they have been allocated net loss previously, then to partners holding preferred OP units until such partners have been allocated net income equal to their preferred return, and finally to partners holding common OP units pro rata in accordance with such partners’ percentage interests; and (2) net loss generally is allocated in the reverse order of net income, but only to the extent such allocation of net loss will not cause a partner to have an adjusted capital account deficit or increase any existing adjusted capital account deficit (determined by subtracting the amount of preferred distribution to be made upon liquidation with respect to any preferred OP units), with any residual net loss being allocated to us as the indirect general partner of our operating partnership. The partnership agreement contains provisions for special allocations intended to comply with certain regulatory requirements, including the requirements of Treasury Regulations Sections 1.704-1(b) and 1.704-2. Certain limited partners may guarantee debt of our operating partnership. As a result of these guaranties, and notwithstanding the foregoing discussion of allocations of income and loss of our operating partnership to holders of units, such limited partners could under limited circumstances be allocated a disproportionate amount of net loss upon a liquidation of our operating partnership, which net loss would have otherwise been allocable to us.
If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss of our operating partnership and any subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.
Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties.
Under Section 704(c) of the Code, items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.
 
Our operating partnership may, from time to time, acquire interests in property in exchange for interests in our operating partnership. In that case, the tax basis of these property interests generally will carry over to our operating partnership, notwithstanding their different book (
i.e
., fair market) value. The partnership agreement requires that income and loss allocations with respect to these properties be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury Regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Depending on the method we choose in connection with any particular contribution, the carryover basis of each of the contributed interests in the properties in the hands of our operating partnership (1) could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if any of the contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to its respective fair market value at the time of the contribution and (2) could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in our operating partnership. An allocation described in clause (2) above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “-Taxation of Our Company-Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “-Annual Distribution Requirements.”
Any property acquired by our operating partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.
Partnership Audit Rules
. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changed the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Although it is uncertain how certain aspects of these new rules will be implemented, it is possible that they could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest, including our operating partnership, being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit

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adjustment. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our capital stock.
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock
The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:
U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;
persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;
U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;
persons holding our capital stock as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;
banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;
REITs or regulated investment companies;
 
brokers, dealers or traders in securities;
“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;
S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);
tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;
persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock being taken into account in an “applicable financial statement” (as defined in the Code);
persons deemed to sell our capital stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and
persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.
THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.
For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:
an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;
a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;
an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or
a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock that is neither a U.S. holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made

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at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.
Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock
Distributions Generally
. Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “-Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “-Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.
 
To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder to the extent of the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. This treatment will reduce the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by such amount, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.
U.S. holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of the capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. holder sells the capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. holder that receives capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such capital stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.
Capital Gain Dividends
. Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long-term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

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Retention of Net Capital Gains
. We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. holder generally would:
include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its U.S. federal income tax return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;
be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;
 
receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;
increase the adjusted tax basis of its capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and
in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.
Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations
. Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “-Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.
Dispositions of Our Capital Stock
. Except as described below under “-Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock-Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.
Redemption or Repurchase by Us
. A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “-Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:
is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder,
results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. holder’s stock interest in us, or
is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder,
all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.
In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “-Distributions Generally.” A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of

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our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.
 
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “-Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”
Tax Rates.
The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” generally is 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” generally is 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the preferential rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of any capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of “qualified REIT dividends” (generally, dividends from a REIT received during the taxable year other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income) for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain limitations. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, in order for a REIT dividend received with respect to a share of REIT stock to be treated as a qualified REIT dividend, the non-corporate U.S. holder must have held the share for more than 45 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend, and such dividend will not be treated as a qualified REIT dividend to the extent that the non-corporate U.S. holder is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property.
Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock
Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of shares of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.
For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.
Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock
The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

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Distributions Generally
. Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be
specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a non-U.S. holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.
Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:
(1)
a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or
(2)
the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.
Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such capital stock, they generally will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain non-U.S. holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.
Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests
. Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:
(1)
the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or
(2)
the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders generally would be taxed at the regular graduated rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to non-U.S. holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax

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liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements, or qualified shareholders, are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
Retention of Net Capital Gains
. Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.
Sale of Our Capital Stock
. Except as described below under “-Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain realized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation,” or USRPHC, will constitute a USRPI. We believe that we are a USRPHC. Our capital stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” Because our common stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”
Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:
(1)
such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as the NYSE; and
(2)
such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.
In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
 
Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder

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(even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such class of stock is “regularly traded” and the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).
If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.
Redemption or Repurchase by Us
. A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “-Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock-Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “-Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock-Distributions Generally” above. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described above under “-Sale of Our Capital Stock.”
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
U.S. Holders
. A U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock. Certain U.S. holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:
the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;
the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;
the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or
 
the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.
Non-U.S. Holders
. Payments of dividends on our capital stock generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any dividends on our capital stock paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or

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the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of such stock conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.
Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income
Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, subject to certain limitations. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock.
Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts
Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.
 
Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock on or after January 1, 2019, recently proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.
Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock.
Other Tax Consequences
State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock.
 
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We or any of the selling security holders may sell the offered securities from time to time:
through underwriters or dealers;
through agents;

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directly to one or more purchasers; or
through a combination of any of these methods of sale.
We will identify the specific plan of distribution, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers and their compensation in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, San Diego, California. Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, has issued an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Extra Space Storage Inc. appearing in Extra Space Storage Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2018 (including the schedule appearing therein), and the effectiveness of Extra Space Storage Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and schedule and Extra Space Storage Inc.’s management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.


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138,456 Shares
Extra Space Storage Inc.
 
exrprosupp_image2a01.jpg
Common Stock
 
 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
 
 

September 20, 2019




Additional Files
FileSequenceDescriptionTypeSize
0001628280-19-011862.txt   Complete submission text file   660463
exrprosupp_image1a01.jpg 2 GRAPHIC 6258
exrprosupp_image2a01.jpg 3 GRAPHIC 9317
$EXR

© 2019 SEC.report
SEC CFR Title 17 of the Code of Federal Regulations.